A brief history
The cultivation of wheat began around 12,000 years ago in the Middle East in the area that was known as the fertile crescent, and which is now very largely part of Iraq. It is also the cereal that has undergone the most change.
The first types of wheat that began being cultivated were einkorn (single grain) wheat and Emmer wheat, that emerged via a spontaneous crossing of single grain wheat and a wild grass. Single grain is still cultivated in its area of origin, in what is now south east Turkey.
Not much wheat was cultivated in the Nordic region initially, as this required a specific type of soil and plant nutrition. The first written sources on the extent of wheat cultivation in Sweden date from the 16th Century and concerned wheat harvests that made up less than one percent of the total grain harvest.